High blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) are considered among the most important cardiovascular risk factors, and its importance is that the arteriosclerotic effects of both pathologies are exponentially enhanced when given in the same subject.
The increase in cholesterol levels gradually and continuously increases the vascular risk of hypertensive, as well as contributing to the development and maintenance of high blood pressure.
IS HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND HIGH CHOLESTEROL A SINGLE PERSON COMMON?
The frequency with which both pathologies occur is similar in adults, it is more, in the hypertensive population, there is a tendency to present higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides and lower HDL-cholesterol (cholesterol “good”) than the population with normal blood pressure figures.
WHAT IS CHOLESTEROL FOR?
Cholesterol is a fat that circulates through the blood and is involved in many metabolic processes in the body.
Some hormones such as sex or esteriodeas are synthesized from cholesterol.
It is necessary for the digestion of fats and is involved in the formation of bile acids.
In the skin and by the action of the sun’s rays, cholesterol is transformed into vitamin D.
It is part of all cell membranes in the body.
The cholesterol that our body has comes from two different pathways, one that synthesizes our body in the liver and another the one that we obtain directly through food.
Diagnosis of HIGH CHOLESTEROL
It is a disease that can be diagnosed very easily. Simply determine your blood cholesterol levels, either through a conventional laboratory test or with a simple prick on your finger pulp and in a few minutes you’ll know what your cholesterol level is. Many pharmacies already have this device.
Diagnosis requires at least two determinations of cholesterol figures because the figures are subject to fluctuations, either due to stress, climate, etc.
For cholesterol determination to be rated, a fast of 12 hours before blood draw is required.
There are other types of fats in the blood such as triglycerides that must also be determined to assess the magnitude of lipid pathology or dyslipemia.
DESIRABLE CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES LEVELS
Keep in mind that as with blood pressure levels, there is no figure from which the coronary risk associated with cholesterol levels disappears.
The risk is gradual and continuous, i.e. lower blood cholesterol, lower risk of cardiovascular disease. In practice, the desired levels will depend on whether or not there are other associated risk factors. Each laboratory usually gives normality figures, in general it can be considered as highly desirable figures:
Total cholesterol less than 200 mg/dL
Triglycerides less than 200 mg/dL
LDL cholesterol less than 150 mg/dL.
WHAT IS “GOOD” CHOLESTEROL AND “BAD”?
The cholesterol that exists in our body is the product, on the one hand, of the cholesterol that forms our own organism and on the other, that comes to us through the food mainly of products of animal origin.
To be transported by the blood you need special particles called lipoproteins. Among the most important are:
Lipoprotein-LDL or low density. Cholesterol that is attached to this lipoprotein is called LDL cholesterol or “bad cholesterol” because it is the cholesterol that is deposited in the walls of blood vessels. These lipoproteins increase when you eat a lot of fat of animal origin, fatty cheeses, cold cuts.
Lipoproteins-HDL or high density. This lipoprotein releases the walls of the vessels from excess cholesterol facilitating its release. It is HDLcolesterol or “good cholesterol”. And they increase with physical exercise, a diet rich in fibre and low in fat and cholesterol.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HYPERTENSIVE WITH HIGH CHOLESTEROL
If you are hypertensive:
We remind you that regardless of the blood pressure levels you have and whether you are taking treatment to lower your pressure figures or not, you should follow the following hygienic-dietary measures:
Check your weight in case of obesity or overweight.
Practice regular physical exercise (isotonic).
Moderate alcohol consumption.
Moderately restrict your salt intake (5 gr/day).
Suppress tobacco (for its important role as a cardio-vascular risk factor).
In addition to other measures: to promote the consumption of foods rich in calcium, potassium and fiber.
Practice relaxation techniques.
And if you also have high cholesterol:
All of these measures, with the exception of saline restriction, match the general recommendations you should follow by having cholesterol levels above those considered normal.
WEIGHT LOSS AND CHOLESTEROL
It should be remembered that if you are hypertensive and obese, small weight decreases (2-4 kg) have a very beneficial impact on blood pressure control, among other things, because obesity is a cause of resistance relative to antihypertensive medication.
And if you also have high cholesterol it has been proven that:
Excess weight is associated with raising total cholesterol, “bad” LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and with decreased “good” HDL-cholesterol.
Obesity is a cause of resistance to antihypertensive medication.
The distribution of body fat influences the risk of infarction as well, an increase in fat in the trunk and upper half of the body is associated with greater risk than if the fat accumulation were in the lower limbs.
EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE ON CHOLESTEROL FIGURES
Exercise has a very beneficial effect on cholesterol levels.
Facilitates weight control.
Lower blood pressure.
It improves blood lipids, decreases triglycerides and increases HDL-cholesterol (“good”).
It should be remembered, that physical exercise should be aerobic type, according to the physical condition of each person and always under the supervision of their doctor.
REDUCING ALCOHOL AND CHOLESTEROL INTAKE
It is another of the measures that are common with blood pressure control and this is because:
It promotes weight loss by contributing to the control of obesity, because of the excess additional calories it provides.
Contributes to blood pressure control.
Decreases triglycerides by improving dyslipemia.